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 چارت آموزشی دوره های آیلتس

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 دوره های زبان

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 English Conditionals

First Conditional: real possibility

We are talking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition or situation in the future, and the result of this condition. There is a real possibility that this condition will happen. For example, it is morning. You are at home. You plan to play tennis this afternoon. But there are some clouds in the sky. Imagine that it rains. What will you do?

IF

condition

result

 

present simple

WILL + base verb

If

it rains

I will stay at home.

Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. It is not raining yet. But the sky is cloudy and you think that it could rain. We use the present simple tense to talk about the possible future condition. We use WILL + base verb to talk about the possible future result. The important thing about the first conditional is that there is a real possibility that the condition will happen. Here are some more examples (do you remember the two basic structures: [IF condition result] and [result IF condition]?):

IF

condition

result

 

present simple

WILL + base verb

If

I see Mary

I will tell her.

If

Tara is free tomorrow

he will invite her.

If

they do not pass their exam

their teacher will be sad.

If

it rains tomorrow

will you stay at home?

If

it rains tomorrow

what will you do?

 

result

IF

condition

WILL + base verb

 

present simple

I will tell Mary

if

I see her.

He will invite Tara

if

she is free tomorrow.

Their teacher will be sad

if

they do not pass their exam.

Will you stay at home

if

it rains tomorrow?

What will you do

if

it rains tomorrow?

 

Second Conditional: unreal possibility or dream

The second conditional is like the first conditional. We are still thinking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition in the future, and the result of this condition. But there is not a real possibility that this condition will happen. For example, you do not have a lottery ticket. Is it possible to win? No! No lottery ticket, no win! But maybe you will buy a lottery ticket in the future. So you can think about winning in the future, like a dream. It's not very real, but it's still possible.

IF

condition

result

 

past simple

WOULD + base verb

If

I won the lottery

I would buy a car.

Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. We use the past simple tense to talk about the future condition. We use WOULD + base verb to talk about the future result. The important thing about the second conditional is that there is an unreal possibility that the condition will happen.

Here are some more examples:

IF

condition

result

 

past simple

WOULD + base verb

If

I married Mary

I would be happy.

If

Ram became rich

she would marry him.

If

it snowed next July

would you be surprised?

If

it snowed next July

what would you do?

 

result

IF

condition

WOULD + base verb

 

past simple

I would be happy

if

I married Mary.

She would marry Ram

if

he became rich.

Would you be surprised

if

it snowed next July?

What would you do

if

it snowed next July?

 

Third Conditional: no possibility

The first conditional and second conditionals talk about the future. With the third conditional we talk about the past. We talk about a condition in the past that did not happen. That is why there is no possibility for this condition. The third conditional is also like a dream, but with no possibility of the dream coming true.

Last week you bought a lottery ticket. But you did not win. :-(

 

condition

result

 

Past Perfect

WOULD HAVE + Past Participle

If

I had won the lottery

I would have bought a car.

Notice that we are thinking about an impossible past condition. You did not win the lottery. So the condition was not true, and that particular condition can never be true because it is finished. We use the past perfect tense to talk about the impossible past condition. We use WOULD HAVE + past participle to talk about the impossible past result. The important thing about the third conditional is that both the condition and result are impossible now.

Sometimes, we use should have, could have, might have instead of would have, for example: If you had bought a lottery ticket, you might have won.

Look at some more examples in the tables below:

IF

condition

result

 

past perfect

WOULD HAVE + past participle

If

I had seen Mary

I would have told her.

If

Tara had been free yesterday

I would have invited her.

If

they had not passed their exam

their teacher would have been sad.

If

it had rained yesterday

would you have stayed at home?

If

it had rained yesterday

what would you have done?

 

result

IF

condition

WOULD HAVE + past participle

 

past perfect

I would have told Mary

if

I had seen her.

I would have invited Tara

if

she had been free yesterday.

Their teacher would have been sad

if

they had not passed their exam.

Would you have stayed at home

if

it had rained yesterday?

What would you have done

if

it had rained yesterday?

 

Zero Conditional: certainty

We use the so-called zero conditional when the result of the condition is always true, like a scientific fact.

Take some ice. Put it in a saucepan. Heat the saucepan. What happens? The ice melts (it becomes water). You would be surprised if it did not.

IF

condition

result

 

present simple

present simple

If

you heat ice

it melts.

Notice that we are thinking about a result that is always true for this condition. The result of the condition is an absolute certainty. We are not thinking about the future or the past, or even the present. We are thinking about a simple fact. We use the present simple tense to talk about the condition. We also use the present simple tense to talk about the result. The important thing about the zero conditional is that the condition always has the same result.

We can also use when instead of if, for example: When I get up late I miss my bus.

Look at some more examples in the tables below:

IF

condition

result

 

present simple

present simple

If

I miss the 8 o'clock bus

I am late for work.

If

I am late for work

my boss gets angry.

If

people don't eat

they get hungry.

If

you heat ice

does it melt?

 

result

IF

condition

present simple

 

present simple

I am late for work

if

I miss the 8 o'clock bus.

My boss gets angry

if

I am late for work.

People get hungry

if

they don't eat.

Does ice melt

if

you heat it?

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 کلاسهای فشرده مکالمه انگلیسی 70 جلسه

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  Tense & Time

It is important not to confuse the name of a verb tense with the way we use it to talk about time.

For example, a present tense does not always refer to present time:

  • I hope it rains tomorrow.
    "rains" is present simple, but it refers here to future time (tomorrow)

Or a past tense does not always refer to past time:

  • If I had some money now, I could buy it.
    "had" is past simple but it refers here to present time (now)

The following examples show how different tenses can be used to talk about different times.


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TENSE

TIME

past

present

future

Present Simple

 

I want a coffee.

I leave tomorrow.

She

likes

coffee.

Present Continuous

 

I am having dinner.

I am taking my exam next month.

They

are

living

in

London.

Present Perfect Simple

I have seen ET.

I have finished.

 

Present Perfect Continuous

I have been playing tennis.

 

 

We have been working for four hours.

 

Past Simple

I finished one hour ago.

If she loved you now, she would marry you.

If you came tomorrow, you would see her.

Past Continuous

I was working at 2am this morning.

 

 

Past Perfect Simple

I had not eaten for 24 hours.

 

 

Past Perfect Continuous

We had been working for 3 hours.

If I had been working now, I would have missed you.

If I had been working tomorrow, I could not have agreed.

Future Simple

 

Hold on. I'll do it now.

I'll see you tomorrow.

Future Continuous

 

 

I will be working at 9pm tonight.

Future Perfect Simple

 

 

I will have finished by 9pm tonight.

We will have been married for ten years next month.

Future Perfect Continuous

 

 

They may be tired when you arrive because they will have been working.

In 30 minutes, we will have been working for four hours.

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